Friday, 8 November 2013



This exam CTAL-TTA_UK, ISTQB Certified Advanced Level - Technical Analyst basically aims to verify that the candidate has acquired the professional knowledge that is present in the syllabus of exam. The exam syllabus for CTAL-TTA_UK, ISTQB Certified Advanced Level - Technical Analyst includes about six topic under the heads of which the learn objectives are discussed.

The exam topics are as follows:

 First topic is of The Technical Analyst's Tasks in Risk-Based  it includes Risk Identification, Risk Assessment, and Risk Mitigation.

This exam CTAL-TTA_UK, ISTQB Certified Advanced Level - Technical Analyst basically aims to verify that the candidate has acquired the professional knowledge that is present in the syllabus of exam.

The exam syllabus for CTAL-TTA_UK, ISTQB Certified Advanced Level - Technical Analyst includes about six topic under the heads of which the learn objectives are discussed.

The exam topics are as follows:
First topic is of The Technical Analyst's Tasks in Risk-Based  it includes Risk Identification, Risk Assessment, and Risk Mitigation.

Second topic is of Structure-Based  for which the learn objectives are Condition , Decision Condition , Modified Condition/Decision Coverage (MC/DC) , Multiple Condition , Path , API , Select a Structure-Based Technique.

Third topic is about Analytical Techniques which includes Static Analysis further in which comes: Control Flow Analysis, Data Flow Analysis, and Us Static Analysis for Improving Maintainability, and Call Graphs. Dynamic Analysis which deals with Detect Memory Leaks, Detect Wild Pointers, and Analysis of Performance

Fourth topic is of Quality Characteristics for Technical  the objectives for which are General Planning Issues that further includes Stakeholder Requirements, Required Tool Acquisition and Train, Environment Requirements, Organizational Considerations, and Data Security Considerations, Security  which is about Security Planning and Security Specification, Reliability  which deals with Measuring Software Maturity, s for Fault Tolerance, Recoverability , Reliability Planning, Reliability Specification. Performance  includes its types, Performance Planning and Specification. Resource Utilization, Maintainability  which includes Analysability, Changeability, Stability and ability. Portability  which includes Install ability , Co-existence/Compatibility , Adaptability , Replace ability  
Fifth topic is about Reviews which includes Us Checklists in Reviews about Architectural Reviews and Code Reviews.

Sixth topic is of Tools and Automation in which the learn objectives are Integration and Information Interchange between Tools, Defining the Automation Project which further includes Select the Automation Approach and Model Business Processes for Automation. Specific Tools include Fault Seed/Fault Injection Tools, Performance  Tools, Tools for Web-Based , and Tools to Support Model-Based , Component  and Build Tools.

The candidate must successfully pass this CTAL-TTA_UK, ISTQB Certified Advanced Level - Technical Analyst exam administered by your Member Board or Examination Provider in order to get his certification issued with an ISTQB® Advanced Level Certificate, which is internationally recognized and this Advanced Level certificate has a lifelong validity.

Author: James M Cupp
Source: Link

Change Management Tools

Change Management Tools

It is the motto of any organization to develop and grow with time and accept changes in its ways. In fact while talking about organizational changes it means describing an on-going process directed as well as supported by management to enhance the vision. A successful procedure of organizational development helps a business to achieve desired target through improved productivity as well as better cooperation within a very short period of time. With Change Management Tools managing such changes becomes easy. Moreover, these tools provide series of advantages that tremendously help organization in long run. Effective change management aids in creation of change request either based on an existing requirement or as a new feature. At the same time such tools associates change requests to existing requirements in order to develop new versions of concerned requirement. These tools also allow developers to provide impact analysis information for every change request for test team for effective regression testing. All these benefits can only be reaped when an organization ensures that it has selected Change Management Tools successfully.

In order to select these tools carefully the organization must understand the changes that are going to be implemented. A thorough understanding helps to locate the types of tools required to manage such changes effectively. Moreover, understanding the goal of the organization is also effective in shortlisting the tools.

In the past few years, the demand for such tools has increased and many vendors now offer these tools with features and functionality. Carefully studying the features as well as comparing them ensures that budget is spent on right tool and yields desired results especially in long-run.

Allocating a budget for buying these tools would be extremely sensible. It is important to remember that budget allocation doesn't mean limited resources are available in an organization, but it ensures that available resources are spent on best Change Management Tools without compromising on quality or features and functionalities. This also helps to secure the future of the organization.

It is the duty of the management to ensure proposed changes are informed on all levels of the organizations. When employees are aware of the upcoming changes they remain mentally prepared and if they feel any issue can inform the management on time. In fact, query or confusion is nothing new when changes are implemented. Thus, only selecting the right Change Management Tools is not enough as proper support is also required that can play a pivotal role in managing any changes.

Author: Jett Lee
Source: Link

Test Management Tools

Test Management Tools

Software development is not complete without rigorous testing that involves series of repeated task. Manually these tasks are not only time consuming, but dull and monotonous that might severely affect the quality and feature of the concerned software. This process ensures bug-free software, proper functionality of the features as well as meeting the required industry standard.

In a cutting edge competition driven market scenario organizations left no stone unturned to release quality software and thus Test Management Tools are playing pivotal role to maintain this aspect. Testing tools makes best procedure simple yet effective and performs rigorous testing with consistency followed by managing as well as its results. With time such tools have evolved tremendously as the scenario of software development has been experiencing new aspects. Thus, other than regular features like conducting varied test, checking and rechecking coding standards, creating new database, feeding slightly altered data continuously developers look for tools with customized features that are successfully catered by vendors.

Today, This tools are available with features like following SBDT, a scenario-based methodology for development and testing for designing for best scenarios, test cases and test scripts, create test case based on used case scenarios, create test scenarios based formula models like Decision Tables and State Models, maintain traceability among requirements, scenarios, test cases, test sets and test scripts, maintain pass/fail status on test case level, test set level and the requirement level.

Quality Test Management Tools also ensure that test results are managed successfully for the sake of meeting deadlines and maintaining all the aspects required for software. Often software are developed where countless tests are required to perform and with proper management feature such as capability to share information among developers and testers, restrictive access of testing results to limited individuals, capability to access test and its result and information from different locations. Thus, during selection of such tools considering these features would be sensible. A smooth communication channel among developers and testers when they are in different locations ensures better workflow with minimized issues of miscommunication and understanding each other's requirement.

Successful selection of Test Management Tools is also possible when organizations consider other equally important factors like project requirement, infrastructure and budget. Selected testing tools must fit into the organizational infrastructure and not the other way around. Simultaneously, it is important to ensure that allotted budget is spent wisely such as keeping in mind the future requirement testing followed by number of people using it.

Author: Jett Lee
Source: Link

Manual V. Automated Testing

Manual V. Automated Testing

Software testing refers to the process of verifying as well as validating the successful functioning of a particular software application/program/product. It ensures that the ultimate product/application/program caters to the technical as well as the business requirements, which guide the entire design and development procedure at best. This particular process of testing is implemented in a number of software enterprises to assure that the product that is being launched in the market is safe, standard, and effective. Presently, two major approaches of software testing exist in the market that can be zeroed down to manual and automatic. The procedure of manual testing refers to the idea of hiring a professional tester to try or execute the product/program/application in different possible approaches of customer use. On the other hand, the automated procedure is all about acquiring a third party or external tool that is designed to execute a pre-set of scenarios along with steps that a customer might use.

Now, when it comes to manual vs. automation testing services, it is safe to say that the key to software testing rests with automation. The first question that an enterprise or tester should ask oneself when conducting manual tests is that 'is it at all possible to make the process automatic?' If yes, then it is always wise to think of the ways to automation.

How does Manual Testing Occur?

 Let us take this as an instance: you are a member of a Quality Assurance team that is responsible for conducting web application tests and you find out there is no automated process written for the same. The outcome: every time, you think of testing apps, you need to click all the links/buttons manually, enter data into input fields, as well as verify proper handling of input and output fields. After the completion of the method, you document the errors that have been encountered and notify the developers to fix the errors accordingly. Now, all these steps enable the functioning of a single application. You need to repeat the entire process for all the applications/programs.

What's the problem here?

 First of all, this process is not just cumbersome, but also inconsistent. If there is a team conducting software tests, the process completely turns out to be relative in respect to the individual conducting the test of a particular application/program. On the other hand, even if you are single-handedly taking care of the entire process, the approach is most likely to change, every time you take up the same. Well, a probable solution to this situation rests with the idea of creating a set standard that everyone needs to follow while testing application. However, it is hard to determine that the standard is being followed by everyone.
Secondly, even if everybody is keen on following the set standard, the method does not guarantee complete efficiency. The reason is simple; it takes too much time to ensure proper functioning of a web application or a program. Moreover, it also turns out to be boring. After all, all you need to do is follow instructions like 'press this button', 'type this', 'click here', etc. and that too repeatedly. Moreover, when you have the choice of implementing alternate ways of software testing, the entire manual procedure seems to be disinteresting.

How to solve the problem? The solution to efficient testing

 If you feel like being turned to a machine while conducting manual tests, it is time that the machine takes up the job. It is always wiser to invest the time in something better like implementing an automated test process, which can be run quickly as well as efficiency without any hitch.
The process of automated testing offers an enterprise reliability, consistency, as well as speed alongside making way for better time allocation. If programmed properly, the tasks can be easily performed consistently in an identical approach. Automation definitely enables fast run of the tasks at specific occurrences, which as a result saves maximum effort, time and money.

Author: Marvin Cole
Source: Link

Sunday, 27 October 2013

Business Analysis and Quality Assurance Uncovered!

Business Analysis and Quality Assurance Uncovered!

Business Analysis and Quality Assurance have one goal in common to support overall strategic goals of Business. Business Analyst does so by making information refined and processed after information gathering and analysis. Quality Assurance takes on the mission from this point and prepares various artefact that help in Assuring Quality and conformance to requirement at every stage of the testing process. Software Testing Training has an extensive coverage for both.

These both need a crystal clear understanding of the Business Domain. At every stage the domain must be considered as Nucleus where all the activities must direct towards. Any deviation from the centrally focused domain can be the cause of rework and change requests. That consumes both time and attention. These both roles can be well juggled via Software Testing Training.

When there is a thorough understanding of domain a Quality Assurance personal can devise the best of breed test cases and a BA can prepare well-informed Domain documents. These let a BA to conform at various meetings that all requirements have been answered in terms of development and Testing. The document understanding is an important part of Software Testing Training.

When these two job roles overlap one can wear various hats as per the need of the software. One job role cannot be complete without the understanding and applicability of other job role. These two have their similarities and differences aligned in-terms of Software Testing Training course outline.

The need is to identify that when to flip the coin at what side. Software Testing Training is a complete solution for these both job roles. These both are like two faces of the same coin the win condition is that one must clearly identify and bet his/her role on right time and for right job role. The Probability of success depends upon one complementing other job role for successful project.
All these techniques can be learnt via Software Testing Training. The understanding of domain must be carried along with the application of correct testing technique as per need of project scope in-terms of effort and time. The techniques also must be chosen wisely that are important for that type of domain.

Author: Ramky
Source: Link

Monday, 7 October 2013

Software Quality Assurance and Testing: An Emerging Employer

Software Quality Assurance and Testing: An Emerging Employer


The software quality assurance and testing segment was created out of the need to ensure that the application provided to a client operated according to requirements and was free of bugs. Though this segment has been around for decades, few analysts and development firms have paid much attention to the emerging market, until quite recently. In this article we will discuss the new employment potential facilitated by this emerging segment.

The Importance of Quality Assurance and Testing in Software Development

The need for companies to deploy software tools for maintaining competitiveness and enhancing productivity has propelled growth in the software development industry over most of the past decade. But as the complexity of applications increased, the possibility of bugs and boilerplate code in the new applications has also increased. To ensure that such bugs and unnecessary codes are identified and resolved in a timely manner, the industry has developed a range of Quality Assurance and Testing practices. The implementation of these practices was the cornerstone for development of the specialized field of software testing within the industry.

The concept of testing in itself is nothing new and game designers have found it necessary to test their games at special pre-release events to ensure that they would click with the intended audience. But often such testing was carried out by the designers themselves or by gamers who had little and often no knowledge of computer codes. This format of testing was often quite inefficient and often caused delays in launching of the new software. The present-day specialized field of software testing developed out of a need to expedite the development process by decreasing the overall time to market for new software.

What Does a Software Tester Do?

Simply put, a software tester runs a new application to determine the presence of any operational deficiencies in the system. Like any process, the field of software testing also features a number of steps to ensure that none of the key aspects of an application starting from the UI to the security/additional functions incorporated into the system are overlooked. Ideally the correct skill set for a software tester includes prior knowledge of programming and the ability to understand as well as rectify codes in different programming languages according to the client's/company's requirement. In some cases, testers are also required to be proficient in writing automation codes to ensure that specific software can be operated on additional platforms as well. In view of these requirements, it is no mystery that few are selected for this role in leading companies and most prospects fail to make the cut.

The Increased Requirement for Software Testers

Independent estimates calculated that the US-based software testing industry is currently worth US$59 billion. As the recession deepens, many US and Western Europe-based companies in developed countries especially Independent software vendors are expected to outsource their QA/testing requirements to leading offshore centers in Philippines, India and Brazil. By the year 2015, this outsourcing trend is projected to create a specialized software testing market worth approximately US$9.1 billion in India alone. This is capable of creating numerous jobs as the current workforce lacks the capability to deal with the predicted influx of QA/testing requirements in the Industry.

Challenge to Development: An Indian Perspective

India has been a leading offshore software development location for over a decade now, but a shift in priorities is required. We already excel at training developers and deploying working applications at rapid speeds, however, QA/Testing is often treated as a secondary role. A change in this attitude towards Software Testing in India is the first step to deriving benefits from the emerging segment. A second issue is the requirement for specialized training programs, which can identify potential talent and groom it to the requirements of the software testing market. No such unified training program for testers currently exists in India, which has led companies to operate their own training programs according to specific requirements. Only by taking steps to develop a unified program and keeping pace with the rapidly changing times, India can emerge as the leading player in the world-wide Quality Assurance Services market and benefit from the outsourcing of various QA/testing requirements.

Author: Abhishek Chakravarti
Source: Link

Tips for Building an Effective Software Testing Team

Tips for Building an Effective Software Testing Team

Software Testing is one of those often-ignored areas of the development process, which often results in catastrophic failures for many firms. In recent years, some industry players have understood the need to invest in the development of skills required to ensure comprehensive analysis of new and/or modified solutions. This field, which is often included under the QA/QC Services category has been correctly recognized as a firm's last line of defense between launching a bug-free market-ready solution or a solution, which is doomed to fail. However, many organizations still ignore an important aspect of testing - it is not a one-man operation (unless it's a very small company) and in case of a team-based multi-man operation, it is important to develop the right mix of individuals who form the team to ensure success.

Unlike many IT industry operations, a typical software testing team comprises of people from different backgrounds such as designers, developers as well as laymen such as prospective users. In fact the more diverse the group, the more robust is the testing process. Simply put if you are designing a financial solution, it always helps to seek customer's advice both during and in the final stages of the development process, which would help ensure that no errors in the financial assumptions occurs and if they do, such problems are identified and resolved at the earliest. But every company invests in developing a core team comprising of programmers and designers, who check the working as well as coding of the software to ensure on time and bug-free delivery of the final product.

Following are some tips to help strengthen your testing team:

Clarity of Roles and Responsibilities

The importance of clarity in defining roles/responsibilities of different members in a team cannot be sufficiently emphasized. Job extension though an important part of the process of developing a team, it is very important to define primary roles of each team member. In this way, you can ensure that different members do not hinder the progress or work of others in the team, while maintaining accountability of each individual team member as part of the overall testing process.

Selecting Correct Skills and Tools

While selecting members for your core testing team, it is always advisable to look for diverse skills among team members. A diverse team is an asset as it allows an organization to check its software from many different perspectives. While someone with a background in web designing could provide invaluable suggestions with respective to the application UI, a programmer would be able to identify and resolve coding errors or make changes to the software to suit client operations. Access to the correct tools is also necessary to help build an effective QA/QC team, because in the current-age of multi platform applications, traditional methods such as regression testing or stress testing need to be revised to suit different types of software being analysed.

Carrier Growth Opportunities and Expansion of Skills

Every individual aspires to climb up the corporate ladder and such ambition if nurtured and directed correctly benefits the organization as well as the individual. The IT industry always moves at a fast pace and if an individual feels the lack of growth opportunities, attrition can be a big problem. It is therefore necessary for organizations to provide adequate financial and non-financial opportunities to help employees stay motivated. The fast paced change in the IT industry necessitates that individuals operating in the QA/QC Team continue to develop and gain new skills, which are necessary to improve their productivity as well as ability to communicate with each other to help resolve problems. Some companies already invest in arranging training programs for their employees however, a more focused approach to develop the testing team further is required for all software development companies.

Author: Abhishek Chakravarti
Source: Link

Developing and Documenting a Software Testing Strategy

Developing and Documenting a Software

The software industry has grown by leaps and bounds over the past decade and the industry is definitely poised to control its growth trajectory even if at a lower rate as a result of the global crisis. In the face of limited resources availability, just developing newer software is not sufficient; software developers need to focus on quality, while companies need to invest significantly in developing their own Quality Assurance and Quality Control (QA/QC) parameters in line with global standards. Software development companies also need to focus on developing a strategy to test any newly developed software to reduce bugs and coding errors, which often creep into software. Here I will discuss the best practices for documenting such a software development strategy.

Scope and Overview

This is the starting section of the software documentation and provides information about the scope of the strategy document. This section clearly mentions the purpose the strategy document while providing key information about the type of software and devices, which will be utilized to perform the testing. Additionally, this section also contains information about the various steps and precautions, which would be taken by the organization as part of its strategy for testing new software.

Test Approach

The test approach section is dedicated to providing details of the testing methodology, which will be followed. Key information available in this section would also include the level of testing as well as the responsibilities and role of each person in the testing process. In case of each test type mentioned in this section, additional information required would include the parameters to be followed for regression, load, performance testing etc. The list of available parameters is quite extensive and depends on the purpose of the software developed as well as the resources at the disposal of the testing.

Test Environment

This is a very important aspect of the strategy as test conditions should ideally mimic the actual operating conditions of the software, while allowing the tester to vary specific conditions to determine performance issues that could affect overall performance. Key features of the environment would include number of users as well as hardware parameters such as memory, free disk space etc. This section of the document should also include information about backup and restore processes, which may be utilized for the software.

Testing Tools

This section of the testing strategy document is dedicated to defining test management and automation criteria for the specific type of software. In case of load, performance testing the document must provide a list of required tools as well as test approach information. Ideally, the document should also clearly state the commercial or open source nature of the tool, while providing information about the user support available while using the tool.

Release Control and Risk Analysis

Being the first in the market does not always guarantee success, that's what many have learnt the hard way. This section of the document allows you to define and refine the release strategy of new software so that benefits are maximized while bugs are minimized in the post development phase. Additionally, the company can also provide information about all real and perceived risk to the market success of their software. The risk analysis would help in maintaining a record of all contingency plans devised in case the risk factor happens in real life.

Review and Approvals

This section of the software strategy document allows companies to define and state their procedures for reviewing the results of the testing, followed by the quantification of minimum qualifying criteria for new software. This section helps the testing team to easily differentiate between software that is ready for approval as opposed to software which requires reworking. These are some of the best practices for creating such a strategy document, which can provide a competitive advantage to the software development company and help it maximize the benefits from its testing resources.

Author: Abhishek Chakravarti
Source: Link

Software Testing Methodologies: Black Box, White Box, Waterfall, V-Model, Spiral Model Explained!

Software Testing Methodologies: Black Box, White Box, Waterfall, V-Model, Spiral Model Explained!


Software development includes different kinds of testing methods. Software testing is an important part of software development. Writing a piece of code is very important, but testing the code is much more important than writing it. Software testing means that testing the code using different conditions and to check the quality of output and whether the output is as expected or not. Before testing the code, the developer will prepare a set of test cases with varying conditions to check the output. Any errors, bugs or difference in result can be found out during the testing phase. It is the job of software quality assurance engineer to conduct the testing and check the results. Though you have many software testing methodologies available, the below listed are the most frequently used by the software engineers.

Black box

It is the commonly used testing method, where the testing person will not know anything about the internal application, working, design, structure and implementation of the code in detail when testing it. The testing person will not be provided any access to the main source code of the application. This kind of testing lets the tester to test the code by providing inputs to the application and getting outputs for it without knowing about how the things are working within the code.

White box

It is opposite to the black box testing method. It lets the tester to perform a detailed investigation about the application. The testing person will know completely about the internal structure, design, working and concept of the application before he starts to test the code. This kind of testing is otherwise called as open box testing, as the tester gets to know about all the aspects of the application in detail.


As the name indicates, it is a top to down testing methodology that is commonly used by the testing engineers. The software testing services of this kind of testing starts with the requirement analysis, followed by the processes like test cases analysis, test cases design implementation, testing, debugging the errors if any and end with the maintenance of the code. The tester has to complete the previous step before moving to the next step. This method is a simple testing method and a kind of non-interactive method.


This type of testing got its name as ‘V' model because the graphical representation of this testing method resembles the shape of letter V. This is similar to waterfall model, but this method includes both the ‘top to bottom' and ‘bottom to top' approach. The main benefit of this method of testing is the software engineers can perform both the development and testing works simultaneously. This kind of testing results in minimizing the time delays and maximum use of the resources.

Spiral Model

Spiral model of testing involves various cycles of testing that includes all steps of testing. First, the initial cycle of testing will be completed and then the next cycle includes complete analysis of the code and testing. If the second cycle fails to meet the standards or the desired results, then the testing person should try the next cycle and this process goes on like this.

Software testing is very important and it is a separate department in IT field. If you want to be in software testing, then you have to clear out the software testing interview questions. The sample questions are available online and you can go through them for a basic idea.
All the above said methods are common software testing methodologies. You have so many other software testing services too, but these are the proved and efficient ways of testing the software application. With the importance of software applications getting more day by day, the significance for testing also grows side by side.

Author: Debarshi Ghosh Dastidar
Source: Link

Friday, 30 August 2013

Software Testing vs. Debugging

Software Testing vs. Debugging

Software testing is more than just finding errors in software source code. It serves more complex function in software development than just unearthing script errors. Although software test is described as the process of executing a system with the purpose of finding defects it is more involved in ensuring software's reliability and determining if it meets the required outcome. It also greatly deals with software's verification and validation.

One primary purpose of software testing is to evaluate the capabilities or attributes of software's capability to satisfactorily meet the standards and customer requirements. But one has to remember that software test is not an absolute measure of quality. Testers' job is to test not to create therefore it is the responsibility of software developer to build a quality software for the testers to perform a quality test on a quality program. The function of a tester is to point out the bugs and weaknesses of the software it is, again, up to developers to act upon it. Testing can never completely establish the correctness of computer software it simply provide a criticism or comparison of the product to the existing standards, specifications and user requirements.

Testers is not equal to bug-finders, bug-finders are wannabe testing professionals whose idea of software testing is autopsying the codes to uncover bugs. Real and mature software testers are more concern with the issue of verification and validation of rather than just bug-digging. They focus on verifying and validating if the software passes or reaches the desired standards or requirements before considering it for general use. They are the one responsible for throwing and answering the questions: Did we develop the software right? Did we develop the right software?

He believe that their job is only to uncover bugs must then seek maturity and explore opportunities and learn how to become more productive in this field. Challenge themselves to become a greater asset to the team rather than just a bug-finder.

Source: Link
Author: Prithwiraj Chakraborty

How to write a Test Case?

How to write a Test Case?

In software testing test case (TC) writing is one of the important activities. Many things will be left out if you are not following the proper process in this area. In this article let us try to identify some of the critical areas what you must keep in your mind while writing TCs for your project.
  1. TC must contain clear definition of the condition for which you are testing the application. In any standard test cases template, there is a precondition section present so make sure you fill that up properly. So if you are testing login function under 50% load for performance testing in the precondition mention "system is having 50% process utilization." So later on if the client wants to check for what condition, you have checked this TC, they can refer the precondition section.  

  2. TC must be clearly traceable to a requirement. The ultimate goal of any testing is to make sure that you have TCs for each requirement. It is a good practice to create a requirement traceability matrix at the end of test-case writing and validate if any requirement is missed and does not have a corresponding test case to cover.  

  3. TCs must have very clearly stated steps. So in the test step section make sure you put the steps in such a way that anybody even new in the project can run it. After writing the test-case do a dry run in your mind and see if any step is missing. It also helps during bug fixing for the development team. You can just send it to them in excel or attach it in your defect. If the steps are clear and simple enough they will be able to reproduce the bug without asking you for more clarification.  

  4. For each test, TC makes sure you clearly mention the expected results or what would happen after execute the steps. If in the step you have four validation condition, then for each validation, you must have an expected result. For example, if in the first step I say user logs in with proper user id and password, then the expected result would say the user login successfully to the dashboard and can see various buttons in the dashboard screen. Similarly, if the user does not have enough permission to see all the buttons, you may mention user logs into the system successfully but only can view the screen but edit button will be disabled until the user, etc. Make sure you write it for all such actions. During testing the tester should not try to assume what is the expected outcome and miss a defect.  

  5. Last critical think of TC writing is test data preparation. After writing the test case you must attach the proper data against it. Again this has to be done for each step. In our example test where a user logs into the system with a role with all permission and limited permission, you need to find at least two user accounts. You can attach the test data in the test case itself by adding one column called test data.

These are some of the steps very critical during test case writing. Furthermore, make sure all these areas are reviewed in several layers to ensure proper quality.

Author: Prithwiraj Chakraborty
Source: Link

What Is Usability Testing?

What Is Usability Testing?

In this article, we will try to answer one of the frequently asked questions in software testing, and that is "What is usability testing?" This is one kind of validation where we test the system from user's perspective.

The purpose of this is to check the following areas:

Does the UI of the system meets all the user requirement or after using one time the user will never use the application again? Here typically first thing we check is the application navigation system to make sure all the pages or forms can be navigated from one to another without any error.  Next we check if the look and feel, screen labels are correct and unambiguous. Third all the standard windows controls are present. This is very important for the usability perspective as most of the users are used to with all the standard windows or browser controls and if some of them are missing or in the wrong place they may face difficulty to navigate through the application. 

The next major objective of the usability testing is to test the application in a lab environment which closely simulated the actual user environment. We also try to match the load of the production systems. Typically, production like data will be used during this testing to get a realistic result from the application under test. This mitigates the risk of having surprised after prod deployment of the application.

At the end of the usability testing you have baseline user performance measure in place, which can be shown to the business users to set the correct expectation.
So now when we know what are the goals for usability testing let us check next. What are the steps to perform it?

1. Decide a handful of test case scenarios which you should run as a part of usability testing. The selection criterion is very simple. Talk to the end users and try to understand the frequently used functions in the business today. Often you may even use a back end system such as DB query or service calls, etc. to get these statistics.

2. Next select some end users who can take participation in this testing. Actual business users who run the application day to day would be really good in this part.

3. Set up the actual test lab for usability testing. As I have already mentioned it has to be as close as possible to the actual production environment with the similar kind of data loaded.

4. Provide the end used set of test cases to run and observe and write down all the problems they face during test execution. Collection of quantitative and measurable data is very important here. That is why it is a good idea to have some number of test coordinator who would actually write those observations on the behalf of the end users. Because they are not testing professionals so you cannot expect them to write defects for you.

5. Based on the observations send the recommendations to the development team.

Author: Prithwiraj Chakraborty
Source: Link

What is Agile Software Testing?

What is Agile Software Testing?


To understand the testing process in Agile development methodology, it is important to understand the paradigm of Agile development. The Agile Development paradigm is not new. Although Agile Software Development Manifesto was launched in February 2001, the concepts existed well before this and have been expressed in different ways. Development methodology spiral is an example.
What is Agile Software Development?

 The Agile Software Development focuses mainly on an iterative development and delivery. Developers and end users to communicate closely, and the software is built. A working software is delivered in a short period of time and based on the comments more features and capabilities are added. The emphasis is on customer satisfaction by providing software quickly with minimal features and improvisation based on the feedback. The client is closely involved in software design and development process. Delivery times are short and the new code is built on the previous one. Despite this, the quality of the product can not be called.

What is the test in a scenario of Agile development?

 The test strategy and the Agile development approach could be very different from the traditional bureaucracy. In fact, it can vary with the needs of the project and the project team. In many scenarios it make sense to not have a team of test. The above statement should be understood carefully. Failure to have a testing team, we do not consider the tests to be less important. In fact, testing can be more effective in short, by people who know the system and its objectives very well.

For example, some teams of Business Analysts could make a few rounds of tests each time the software version is available. Business Analysts understand the requirements of the company and the test software to check if it meets the requirements.

Developers test the software in May. They tend to understand the system and can verify the test results in a better way. Testing for Agile Software Development requires innovative thinking and the right mix of people should be selected for the test.

Author: Prithwiraj Chakraborty
Source: Link

Sunday, 18 August 2013

Contract Test Analyst - ISEB / ISTQB - Job £350p/d - £380p/d

Contract Test Analyst - London - 6 months - £350p/d - £380p/d - Payments - Quality Centre - QTP - ISEB

Our client is one of the healthiest banks in the world at this current time (virtually zero exposure to the sub-prime market). Furthermore, if you like the excitement of working in the IT banking sector, but don't especially enjoy the culture of long hours and intense pressure this could be the organisation for you.

This organisation respects work / life balance of its employees. A contract opportunity has arisen to join this banking group as Test Analyst to concentrate of their payments systems.
Job purpose: Main Requirements:

Test Planning/Scripting/Data preparation/Execution.
Experience with integration testing of payments flows, not just 'user-driven applications'.
Whilst the user interface aspect is indeed important, testing the flows of the backend systems including databases and middleware and integration/interfaces between subsystems is key.
Advanced experience with HPQC.

  • Good technical skills, including VBA, XML and SQL.
  • Advanced functional automation knowledge with QTP - CPC preferred.
  • Preferably some experience with non-functional testing.
  • Test Reporting and Defect management.
  • Basic knowledge of test governance for different development methodologies.
  • Additional Requirements:
  • Good communication skills, both written and spoken.
  • Should have the ability to build relationships with external teams for testing engagements. Good problem solving skills.
  • Core responsibilities:
  • To hire a temporary member of staff who can work in manual testing for Banking Operations and automate once testing is completed
  • Test Planning/Scripting/Data preparation/Execution.
  • Advanced experience with HPQC.
  • Good technical skills, including VBA, XML and SQL
  • Test Reporting and Defect management.
  • Basic knowledge of test governance for different development methodologies.
  •  Preferably some experience with non-functional testing.
  • Education (Preferred): ISEB Foundation Certification

Source: Link

Test Manager - Testing Tools Analysis and Selection - ISTQB / Prince 2 - Job

Test Manager - Testing Tools Analysis and Selection - ISTQB / Prince 2

About the Job

Test Manager - Testing Tools Selection - Testing Tools Analysis - ISTQB - Prince 2 - QC

Our major International client is looking for an experienced Test Manager with an background of reviewing Testing Tools, producing documentation to support this along with a tools approach and guidelines. This includes reviewing the tools for requirements gathering and documenting a proposal for improvements.

You will be responsible for :

Reviewing existing testing tools and creating a testing ?Tools Profile` This includes close liaison with key stakeholders to identify the levers to successful delivery and embedding change.
Reviewing requirements processes and tools and producing recommendations.

Providing a definition for tool selection and deliver in a "Tools Approach" document and
"Document Tools Guidelines"
Establish the Framework for Test Management Tools including metrics and reporting.
Manage engagement with all appropriate communities to give consistent delivery and embedding.
Follow our clients "Project Delivery Method" for this assignment.
Document testing tools advice for multiple-locations.

It is expected that you will have sound previous experience of Testing Tools analysis as well as -
Strong and demonstrable knowledge of Test Management methods and tools
Qualified in Test Management method(s) (e.g. ISTQB qualified
Qualified in Project Management method(s) e.g. PMI, Prince2.
Qualified with proven experience in implementing testing tools e.g. QC qualified
Be a proven Test Manager with experience of IT deployments in a large-scale environment (ideally more than 5 years of such experience)
Experience of working with senior stakeholders
Good understanding of project management methodologies, tools and techniques
Strong communication skills adaptable to team members, senior stakeholders, peers and suppliers
Be able to communicate complex technical issues in clear terms to non-specialists
Have a sound understanding of current IT technologies

Due to the volume of applications, we regret that we can only respond to those meeting our above requirements.

Source: Link


Software Test Analyst with Oracle and ISTQB - Job

Software Test Analyst with Oracle and ISTQB

About the Job

Software Test Analyst with Oracle and ISTQB, Herts, £30 - 40K + bens
Our client delivers award winning solutions to leading businesses worldwide. Their projects often involve multiple countries & complex financial processing.
Their rapid growth and policy of continuous product enhancement means that they have a need for an opinionated and effective product testing function!
Our client’s offices are a 20min fast train ride from Kings Cross.
The Position
You will be working in a small team performing, refining and supporting our client’s approach to System Testing of both enhancements and bug fixes
The Person
They are seeking bright, talented, ambitious and self-motivated individuals who are able to think laterally to join the team. They seek people who not only show enthusiasm for their day-to-day role but are keen to develop the business going forward. Successful candidates will be committed, keen to develop their skills further and equipped to deliver on the promises they make to customers. It is essential that you are able to learn quickly and absorb new ideas.
You must have
·         Extensive software testing experience in an Oracle environment.
·         Experience of software testing tools, whether for test management, capture replay, data preparation, debugging, load test, security penetration or requirements testing.
·         Understanding of the full Software Development Lifecycle
·         ISTQB Foundation Certificate
It would be an advantage if you have any of the following:
·         Experience of TOAD, SQL PLUS and/or Oracle Forms
·         Experience with HP Quality Centre
·         Experience with  HP QTP or a similar regression testing toolkit
·         A strong mathematical or financial background
This is a great opportunity to work for a growing successful company with a fantastic product.
Source: Link

Senior Test Analyst / QA Engineer (ISEB / ISTQB, Agile) - Job

Senior Test Analyst / QA Engineer (ISEB / ISTQB, Agile)

About the Job

We are looking for a Senior QA Engineer / Test Analyst with experience of designing, developing and executing test plans in an Agile environment for a market leader and expanding software solutions company in Bedford, Bedfordshire. Any experience of Jira, Wiki and/or Zephyr would be ideal but not essential.

As the successful Senior Test Analyst / QA Engineer you will be responsible for designing, developing and executing test plans as well as providing team and technical leadership across an Agile environment involving solution design, test planning, functional testing, defect management and process improvements.

As a Senior QA Engineer / Test Analyst you are likely to understand client server and web based applications as well as exposure to tools such as Jira, Wiki and/or Zephyr. A fantastic opportunity to have an influence over future direction of testing activity and the approaches taken.

Skills required for the role of Senior Test Analyst / QA Engineer (ISEB / ISTQB, Agile):

  • Good software testing experience which is likely to be backed up by an ISEB or ISTQB certification
  • Experience of functional testing, reviewing acceptance criteria, manual testing, exploratory testing and assisting in performance, security, integration or acceptance testing
  • Examples of taking the Lead and Senior role in testing activity
  • Experience working in an Agile delivery environment
  • Good knowledge of both client server and web based applications
  • Likely to have knowledge of at least one of the following: Jira, Wiki, Zephyr or SQL Server databases

Senior Test Analyst / QA Engineer (ISEB / ISTQB, Agile)Salary: £30-35k (depending on experience) + benefits

Location: Bedford, Bedfordshire

Commutable from: Milton Keynes, St Neots, Northampton, Luton, Stevenage, Peterborough, St Albans, Watford, Buckinghamshire, Cambridgeshire, Northamptonshire and Hertfordshire

Apply now for further information on this excellent opportunity.

Source : Link

Saturday, 10 August 2013

ISTQB Exam Question Paper, Part 6

ISTQB Exam Question Paper, Part 6

21 Which of the following should NOT normally be an objective for a test?
a) To find faults in the software.
b) To assess whether the software is ready for release.
c) To demonstrate that the software doesn’t work.
d) To prove that the software is correct.

22 Which of the following is a form of functional testing?
a) Boundary value analysis
b) Usability testing
c) Performance testing
d) Security testing

23 Which of the following would NOT normally form part of a test plan?
a) Features to be tested
b) Incident reports
c) Risks
d) Schedule

24 Which of these activities provides the biggest potential cost saving from the use of CAST?
a) Test management
b) Test design
c) Test execution
d) Test planning

25 Which of the following is NOT a white box technique?
a) Statement testing
b) Path testing
c) Data flow testing
d) State transition testing

26 Data flow analysis studies:
a) possible communications bottlenecks in a program.
b) the rate of change of data values as a program executes.
c) the use of data on paths through the code.
d) the intrinsic complexity of the code.

27 In a system designed to work out the tax to be paid:
An employee has £4000 of salary tax free. The next £1500 is taxed at 10%
The next £28000 is taxed at 22%
Any further amount is taxed at 40%
To the nearest whole pound, which of these is a valid Boundary Value Analysis test case?
a) £1500
b) £32001
c) £33501
d) £28000

28 An important benefit of code inspections is that they:
a) enable the code to be tested before the execution environment is ready.
b) can be performed by the person who wrote the code.
c) can be performed by inexperienced staff.
d) are cheap to perform.

29 Which of the following is the best source of Expected Outcomes for User Acceptance Test scripts?
a) Actual results
b) Program specification
c) User requirements
d) System specification

30 What is the main difference between a walkthrough and an inspection?
a) An inspection is lead by the author, whilst a walkthrough is lead by a trained moderator.
b) An inspection has a trained leader, whilst a walkthrough has no leader.
c) Authors are not present during inspections, whilst they are during walkthroughs.
d) A walkthrough is lead by the author, whilst an inspection is lead by a trained moderator.

31 Which one of the following describes the major benefit of verification early in the life cycle?
a) It allows the identification of changes in user requirements.
b) It facilitates timely set up of the test environment.
c) It reduces defect multiplication.
d) It allows testers to become involved early in the project.

32 Integration testing in the small:
a) tests the individual components that have been developed.
b) tests interactions between modules or subsystems.
c) only uses components that form part of the live system.
d) tests interfaces to other systems.

33 Static analysis is best described as:
a) the analysis of batch programs.
b) the reviewing of test plans.
c) the analysis of program code.
d) the use of black box testing.

34 Alpha testing is:
a) post-release testing by end user representatives at the developer’s site.
b) the first testing that is performed.
c) pre-release testing by end user representatives at the developer’s site.
d) pre-release testing by end user representatives at their sites.

35 A failure is:
a) found in the software; the result of an error.
b) departure from specified behaviour.
c) an incorrect step, process or data definition in a computer program.
d) a human action that produces an incorrect result.

36 In a system designed to work out the tax to be paid:
An employee has £4000 of salary tax free. The next £1500 is taxed at 10%
The next £28000 is taxed at 22%
Any further amount is taxed at 40%
Which of these groups of numbers would fall into the same equivalence class?
a) £4800; £14000; £28000
b) £5200; £5500; £28000
c) £28001; £32000; £35000
d) £5800; £28000; £32000

37 The most important thing about early test design is that it:
a) makes test preparation easier.
b) means inspections are not required.
c) can prevent fault multiplication.
d) will find all faults.

38 Which of the following statements about reviews is true?
a) Reviews cannot be performed on user requirements specifications.
b) Reviews are the least effective way of testing code.
c) Reviews are unlikely to find faults in test plans.
d) Reviews should be performed on specifications, code, and test plans.

39 Test cases are designed during:
a) test recording.
b) test planning.
c) test configuration.
d) test specification.

40 A configuration management system would NOT normally provide:
a) linkage of customer requirements to version numbers.
b) facilities to compare test results with expected results.
c) the precise differences in versions of software component source code.
d) restricted access to the source code library.

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ISTQB Exam Question Paper, Part 5

ISTQB Exam Question Paper, Part 5

1 We split testing into distinct stages primarily because:
a) Each test stage has a different purpose.
b) It is easier to manage testing in stages.
c) We can run different tests in different environments.
d) The more stages we have, the better the testing.

2 Which of the following is likely to benefit most from the use of test tools providing test capture and replay facilities?
a) Regression testing
b) Integration testing
c) System testing
d) User acceptance testing

3 Which of the following statements is NOT correct?
a) A minimal test set that achieves 100% LCSAJ coverage will also achieve 100% branch coverage.
b) A minimal test set that achieves 100% path coverage will also achieve 100% statement coverage.
c) A minimal test set that achieves 100% path coverage will generally detect more faults than one that achieves 100% statement coverage.
d) A minimal test set that achieves 100% statement coverage will generally detect more faults than one that achieves 100% branch coverage.

4 Which of the following requirements is testable?
a) The system shall be user friendly.
b) The safety-critical parts of the system shall contain 0 faults.
c) The response time shall be less than one second for the specified design load.
d) The system shall be built to be portable.

5 Analyse the following highly simplified procedure:
Ask: “What type of ticket do you require, single or return?”
IF the customer wants ‘return’
Ask: “What rate, Standard or Cheap-day?”
IF the customer replies ‘Cheap-day’
Say: “That will be £11:20”
Say: “That will be £19:50”
Say: “That will be £9:75”
Now decide the minimum number of tests that are needed to ensure that all
the questions have been asked, all combinations have occurred and all
replies given.
a) 3
b) 4
c) 5d) 6
6 Error guessing:
a) supplements formal test design techniques.
b) can only be used in component, integration and system testing.
c) is only performed in user acceptance testing.
d) is not repeatable and should not be used.

7 Which of the following is NOT true of test coverage criteria?
a) Test coverage criteria can be measured in terms of items exercised by a test suite.
b) A measure of test coverage criteria is the percentage of user requirements covered.
c) A measure of test coverage criteria is the percentage of faults found.
d) Test coverage criteria are often used when specifying test completion criteria.

8 In prioritising what to test, the most important objective is to:
a) find as many faults as possible.
b) test high risk areas.
c) obtain good test coverage.
d) test whatever is easiest to test.
9 Given the following sets of test management terms (v-z), and activity descriptions (1-5), which one of the following best pairs the two sets?
v – test control
w – test monitoring
x - test estimation
y - incident management
z - configuration control

1 - calculation of required test resources
2 - maintenance of record of test results
3 - re-allocation of resources when tests overrun
4 - report on deviation from test plan
5 - tracking of anomalous test results

a) v-3,w-2,x-1,y-5,z-4
b) v-2,w-5,x-1,y-4,z-3
c) v-3,w-4,x-1,y-5,z-2
d) v-2,w-1,x-4,y-3,z-5

10 Which one of the following statements about system testing is NOT true?
a) System tests are often performed by independent teams.
b) Functional testing is used more than structural testing.
c) Faults found during system tests can be very expensive to fix.
d) End-users should be involved in system tests.

11 Which of the following is false?
a) Incidents should always be fixed.
b) An incident occurs when expected and actual results differ.
c) Incidents can be analysed to assist in test process improvement.
d) An incident can be raised against documentation.

12 Enough testing has been performed when:
a) time runs out.
b) the required level of confidence has been achieved.
c) no more faults are found.
d) the users won’t find any serious faults.

13 Which of the following is NOT true of incidents?
a) Incident resolution is the responsibility of the author of the software under test.
b) Incidents may be raised against user requirements.
c) Incidents require investigation and/or correction.
d) Incidents are raised when expected and actual results differ.

14 Which of the following is not described in a unit test standard?
a) syntax testing
b) equivalence partitioning
c) stress testing
d) modified condition/decision coverage

15 Which of the following is false?
a) In a system two different failures may have different severities.
b) A system is necessarily more reliable after debugging for the removal of a fault.
c) A fault need not affect the reliability of a system.
d) Undetected errors may lead to faults and eventually to incorrect behaviour.

16 Which one of the following statements, about capture-replay tools, is NOT correct?
a) They are used to support multi-user testing.
b) They are used to capture and animate user requirements.
c) They are the most frequently purchased types of CAST tool.
d) They capture aspects of user behaviour.

17 How would you estimate the amount of re-testing likely to be required?
a) Metrics from previous similar projects
b) Discussions with the development team
c) Time allocated for regression testing
d) a & b

18 Which of the following is true of the V-model?
a) It states that modules are tested against user requirements.
b) It only models the testing phase.
c) It specifies the test techniques to be used.
d) It includes the verification of designs.

19 The oracle assumption:
a) is that there is some existing system against which test output may be checked.
b) is that the tester can routinely identify the correct outcome of a test.
c) is that the tester knows everything about the software under test.
d) is that the tests are reviewed by experienced testers.

20 Which of the following characterises the cost of faults?
a) They are cheapest to find in the early development phases and the most expensive to fix in the latest test phases.
b) They are easiest to find during system testing but the most expensive to fix then.
c) Faults are cheapest to find in the early development phases but the most expensive to fix then.
d) Although faults are most expensive to find during early development phases, they are cheapest to fix then.

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Tuesday, 6 August 2013

What is Manual Testing?

What is Manual Testing?

Manual QA Testing is carried out to identify defects in the test software pertaining to usability testing along with GUI testing area. It proves to be a highly effective form of IT testing since it detects a certain class of bugs successfully, which cannot be detected using test automation technique

Now the question arises when to use manual QA testing? Well, the answer to this question redirects us to certain instances listed below.

Let us take the case of installations and setups where loading of CD-ROMs and tapes is done by the tester. Also, it's needed in the instance of localization wherein the tester screens & decides if the translation is making some sense or not, whether it's appropriate or not etc.

Manual QA testing is also required in the case of error handling and recovery in which the tester needs to be involved in test execution thus highlighting again on the significance of manual testing. Besides the cases listed above, manual QA testing is also called for while reconfiguring systems, installing some new software, which require manual intervention. It's also much required to screen intricacies/errors associated with UI & workflows. Along with that, it's also used in documentation. However, it must not be conducted during the last phases of Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC).

It's time for us to jump on to the next sub-topic—how to use manual testing? Let us take a glance at the how manual testing method is used. The process is screened and assessed across all phases of SDLC. However, the execution can go on simultaneously with the normal manual testing process. While test cases are prepared and executed, the supervisory authorities can continue using the results of that process. The testing of interface is then done between the users and application system. However, there are a large number of factors that impact the efficacy of manual QA testing such as test case completion degree and in-depth documentation done.

Author: Adam George
Source: Link

Sunday, 4 August 2013

Automation Tools for Regression Testing

Automation Tools for Regression Testing

Once the application code changes it is carried out its re-testing which is also called regression testing. This is done to make sure that everything is working correctly and that the changes did not result in any new software bugs.

The destination of this type of testing is to verify that operating functions are not broken after the change of the code.
It is important to conduct regression testing as often as possible (for example, after new software build), so that code modifications that damaged how application works can be quickly identified and fixed.

As soon as there is something to test, then regression testing begins. Regression testing begins as soon as there is something to check at all. The regression test suite grows as the application moves ahead and test engineers add test cases that test new or rewritten code.  Soon the suite may extend to thousands of test cases that cover various application functions. Obviously there is a fact that a person cannot repeat all the tests and analyse their results. That is why at this moment automation regression tests are necessary.

When should we start regression testing?

At that moment, when a programmer fixes a software bug or adds a new code for new functionality of the system - at this point regression testing begins. It is a quality measure to check that new code complies with old code and unmodified code is not getting affected. Most of the time testing is used to check the recent changes in the system. In such situation testing only affected application area in necessary to complete the testing process in time with covering all major system aspects.

What do we include in regression testing?
  • Rerunning the previously conducted tests
  • Comparing current results with previously executed test results.

How much time is needed for regression testing?

This depends on the scope of new added feature. If the scope of the fix or feature is large then the application area getting affected is quite large and testing should be thoroughly including all the application test cases. But only if the tester receives input from the developer on the scope, number and nature of changes, only then it can be effectively.

Regression testing and changes in GUI

It is distressing to make graphical user interface regression testing when GUI structure is altered. The test cases written on old GUI either get archaic. Update of the regression testing test cases means GUI test cases are changed according to new GUI. But if you have many GUI test cases, then this job becomes unwieldy difficult.

Tools for automated regression testing

Automated regression testing is the testing area where we can automate most of the testing efforts. Expected results so automating these test cases are time-saving and efficient method for regression testing as well as manual testing takes too much time. The degree of automation depends on the number of tests that will remain applicable over time. If test cases are varying time to time as application scope goes on increasing then automation of regression procedure will be the waste of time.

The vast majority of regression testing tools are recording and playback type. As you can imagine, this means that you will write tests on AUT navigation and test results are expected or not.
Here are some examples of tools of regression testing:
  • Selenium
  • ActiWate
  • AdventNet QEngine
  • Regression Tester
  • Rational Functional Tester
  • SilkTest
  • WinRunner
  • QTP
  • VTest
  • Watir
Most of the tools used by both functional and as tools for regression testing.

Author: QATestLab
Source: Link

User Acceptance Testing (UAT) For Websites

User Acceptance Testing For Websites

The importance of user acceptance testing varies considerably. In some circumstances, it's founded a set of tests a program or Website must complete before delivery is acknowledged by the end personal.

A more complete way to UAT contains the end customers at every level of the development process, and for the demands of determining business and e-commerce websites, this is the importance that should be used

UAT is different from Quality assurance because it information issues that QA doesn't, like how easy and user-friendly a Website is to use rather than just the issue of whether the Website's significant features perform or not. It's possible to have a Website that goes all QA tests for basic functionality but is so challenging to use that it usually chases customers away. There are many Websites like this on the Online, and the earnings they cost organizations would probably secured the cost of adequate UAT several times over.

The objective so many professional Websites are unsuccessful on the issue of Quality is mainly due to information of the issue that professional Websites are usually designed by one people to be used by another people. In contrast to workers who have to use whatever technology their professionals choose to offer them with, customers usually have a option, and if one professional Website is too challenging to use, they'll go for an much easier to use oppositions Website nearly every time. The key to success is to create sure your organization Website is one of the easy to use ones. Unfortunately, this is easier said than done, but if you follow one of the traditional UAT techniques the objective is well within go to.

To start the UAT process, evaluate out some of the UAT Websites on the Web and acquire one of the UAT information templates that seem to fit your design's needs. Established with care. Most of the documentation available on UAT is focused at organizations developing up Websites for in house use. Therefore the UAT framework symbolizes that the end customers will have a brilliant concept of what they want, and that they will have the efficiency to communicate those needs clearly, and interacting with business circumstances. Companies developing Websites for use by customers, or other organizations, encounter an entirely different situation because it's challenging to involve customers in anything but one more items or assistance, or at best a try out of one more Website.

To get over this issue, one or more workers should be particular to indicate the end personal customers at every level of the development process. This will add to the development cost, but it will be well value it. The unique end customers particular to the project don't usually need to be greater paid workers, just those who are advisor of the end personal. Even earnings personal or employees will do for Websites promotion typical client items. For B2B Websites, relaxing program workers might be more appropriate.

Author: Angelina Peria
 Source: Link

ISTQB Exam Question Paper, Part 4

ISTQB Exam Question Paper, Part 4

11. An incident logging system

a only records defects
b is of limited value
c is a valuable source of project information during testing if it contains all incidents
d. should be used only by the test team.

12. Increasing the quality of the software, by better development methods, will affect the time needed for testing (the test phases) by:

a. reducing test time
b. no change
c. increasing test time
d. can’t say

13. Coverage measurement

a. is nothing to do with testing
b. is a partial measure of test thoroughness
c. branch coverage should be mandatory for all software
d. can only be applied at unit or module testing, not at system testing

14. When should you stop testing?

a. when time for testing has run out.
b. when all planned tests have been run
c. when the test completion criteria have been met
d. when no faults have been found by the tests run

15. Which of the following is true?

a. Component testing should be black box, system testing should be white box.
b. if u find a lot of bugs in testing, you should not be very confident about the quality of software
c. the fewer bugs you find, the better your testing was
d. the more tests you run, the more bugs you will find.

16. What is the important criterion in deciding what testing technique to use?

a. how well you know a particular technique
b. the objective of the test
c. how appropriate the technique is for testing the application
d. whether there is a tool to support the technique

17. If the pseudo code below were a programming language ,how many tests are required to achieve 100% statement coverage?

1. If x=3 then
2. Display_messageX;
3. If y=2 then
4. Display_messageY;
5. Else
6. Display_messageZ;
7. Else
8. Display_messageZ;

a. 1
b. 2
c. 3
d. 4

18. Using the same code example as question 17,how many tests are required to achieve 100% branch/decision coverage?

a. 1
b. 2
c. 3
d. 4

19 Which of the following is NOT a type of non-functional test?

a. State-Transition
b. Usability
c. Performance
d. Security

20. Which of the following tools would you use to detect a memory leak?

a. State analysis
b. Coverage analysis
c. Dynamic analysis
d. Memory analysis

21. Which of the following is NOT a standard related to testing?

a. IEEE829
b. IEEE610
c. BS7925-1
d. BS7925-2

22.which of the following is the component test standard?

a. IEEE 829
b. IEEE 610
c. BS7925-1
d. BS7925-2

23 which of the following statements are true?

a. Faults in program specifications are the most expensive to fix.
b. Faults in code are the most expensive to fix.
c. Faults in requirements are the most expensive to fix
d. Faults in designs are the most expensive to fix.

24. Which of the following is not the integration strategy?

a. Design based
b. Big-bang
c. Bottom-up
d. Top-down

25. Which of the following is a black box design technique?

a. statement testing
b. equivalence partitioning
c. error- guessing
d. usability testing

26. A program with high cyclometic complexity is almost likely to be:

a. Large
b. Small
c. Difficult to write
d. Difficult to test

27. Which of the following is a static test?

a. code inspection
b. coverage analysis
c. usability assessment
d. installation test

28. Which of the following is the odd one out?

a. white box
b. glass box
c. structural
d. functional

29. A program validates a numeric field as follows:

values less than 10 are rejected, values between 10 and 21 are accepted, values greater than or equal to 22 are rejected

which of the following input values cover all of the equivalence partitions?

a. 10,11,21
b. 3,20,21
c. 3,10,22
d. 10,21,22

30. Using the same specifications as question 29, which of the following covers the MOST boundary values?

a. 9,10,11,22
b. 9,10,21,22
c. 10,11,21,22
d. 10,11,20,21

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